Russian Caviar: Types, Taste, and Tradition

Caviar is a luxury delicacy that has been associated with Russia and Russian culture for centuries. The term “caviar” refers to the salt-cured fish eggs from sturgeon and other large fish species. True caviar comes specifically from the roe of sturgeon found in the Caspian and Black Seas bordering Russia. No other caviar can compare to the fine taste and texture of real Russian caviar.

Caviar harvesting and production has a rich history in Russia dating back hundreds of years. The rarest and most prized type, Beluga caviar, was traditionally harvested from Beluga sturgeons native to the Caspian Sea. While wild caviar production has steeply declined, Russia has established itself as the world’s leading producer of quality farmed caviar

Russia still dominates the global caviar trade, producing over 60% of the world’s caviar supply. Although overfishing nearly decimated the wild sturgeon populations in the 20th century, improved fishery management and booming aquaculture have revived Russia’s historic caviar industry.

In this article, we’ll explore the storied history, production methods, and tasting traditions of the ultimate Russian delicacy – caviar.

What is Russian Caviar?

The term “caviar” refers only to the salt-cured fish eggs from species in the Acipenseridae family of sturgeons and paddlefishes. Caviar connoisseurs highly prize eggs from certain sturgeon found only in the Caspian Sea basin, including Beluga, Russian Osetra, and Russian Sevruga sturgeons. 

Caviar varies in color, size, taste, and texture based on the sturgeon species. The rarest and most expensive is the pale gray Beluga caviar from the beluga sturgeon, with its large pearlescent eggs and refined, buttery taste. Dark brown to black Osetra caviar offers a robust nutty flavor. Smaller deep brown to black eggs characterize the distinctly intense and salty Sevruga caviar.

While the term “caviar” is often misused for other fish roes, true caviar comes solely from sturgeon. Cheaper caviar substitutes may come from salmon, trout, lumpfish, or even seaweed. However, the flavor and culinary experience of Russian sturgeon caviar remains unmatched. 

History of Russian Caviar

The rich history of caviar is deeply intertwined with Russia. Sturgeons have inhabited the Black and Caspian Seas since prehistoric times. The Persians supposedly discovered caviar processing as early as the 6th century BCE. Caviar quickly became a favored food among Russian aristocrats and tsars. 

By the 1800s, Russia dominated the global caviar market, supplying the delicacy to elite tables across Europe. The Volga River delta supported vibrant sturgeon fisheries and bustling caviar processing centers. At its peak in the early 1900s, Russia produced up to 90% of the world’s caviar.

Caspian Sea caviar was so abundant and inexpensive that it was served freely in Russian bars and pubs alongside beer. The communist revolution disrupted the Russian caviar industry through the nationalization of fisheries and strict state control over caviar production and pricing. 

In the latter 20th century, the demise of the Soviet Union along with rampant overfishing and environmental issues in the Caspian Sea nearly wiped out wild Russian sturgeon populations. However, Russia has rebounded as the world’s caviar leader through intensive aquaculture efforts and improved fisheries management.

Types of Russian Caviar

The three main types of prized Caspian Sea caviar produced by Russia are Beluga, Osetra, and Sevruga. They vary in taste, texture, color, egg size, and rarity.

1. Beluga Caviar

Sourced from the endangered beluga sturgeon, Beluga caviar is the rarest and most expensive type. Its pale, shimmering gray eggs are the largest of any caviar, measuring up to 3 mm. Beluga caviar offers an exquisitely refined, creamy, and buttery flavor with smooth texture. It showcases extremely subtle flavors compared to other caviar.

In 2020, wild beluga sturgeon caviar production reached merely 0.6 tons in Russia, down from 17 tons in 1998. Once the crown jewel of Russian caviar, beluga populations have plummeted. Today, most beluga caviar comes from aquaculture rather than wild sturgeons. However, it still commands eye-watering prices up to $10,000 per kg.

2. Osetra Caviar

Osetra caviar comes from Russian Osetra sturgeons found in the Caspian basin. It displays medium-sized grayish brown eggs ranging from 2.2 to 2.6 mm. Osetra is characterized by a rich, nutty, hazelnut-like flavor and firm, juicy texture that pops pleasingly with every bite.

Osetra caviar offers an excellent balance between the refined flavors of Beluga and intensely briny Sevruga caviar. It remains a favored caviar choice among chefs and caviar connoisseurs. The middle ground prices around $1,000 to $3,000 per kg also make Osetra a relative value. 

3. Sevruga Caviar

Sevruga caviar is harvested from Russian sevruga sturgeons, the smallest of the prized Caspian sturgeons. The tiny black eggs measure just 1.8 to 2.2 mm. Sevruga caviar provides an assertive, saline, and briny taste accentuated by its firm bite.

Compared to other caviars, sevruga is characterized by lower egg yields per fish and faster spoilage. However, its robust flavor profile has made it popular for culinary uses in sauces and other dishes. Sevruga caviar is also the most affordable type, priced between $1,000 to $2,500 per kg.

How is Russian Caviar Harvested?

Wild Russian sturgeon caviar was traditionally harvested from fish caught in the Caspian and Black Seas during their seasonal spawning migrations up the Volga River. The government regulated strict fishing seasons and quotas to protect wild stocks. 

When a large female sturgeon was caught, its egg-laden ovaries were extracted and transported to shoreside processing facilities. After meticulous cleaning, curing, grading, and packaging, the precious caviar was ready for export abroad as a prized gourmet delicacy.

To source caviar sustainably, Russia now supplements tightly controlled wild caviar fishing with farmed caviar produced from aquaculture. Female sturgeons raised in specialized fish farms are harvested when ready for egg extraction. Russia produced over 56 tons of farmed sturgeon caviar in 2020, surpassing wild caviar output.

How to Taste and Serve Russian Caviar?

Due to its exorbitant prices, savoring caviar is an experience to be carefully enjoyed. Tasting begins with choosing a pristine glass jar of fresh Russian caviar from a reputable purveyor. Always check that the caviar is glistening, not dull, with no yellowing.

The optimal caviar tasting temperature is ice cold, straight from the fridge. Use a non-metallic spoon like mother-of-pearl to avoid any eggy aftertaste. Scoop onto a piece of crispy, unsalted toast. Avoid mixing caviar with anything else initially to appreciate the pure unadulterated flavor.

Let the eggs slowly roll across your tongue, noticing the texture before the taste blooms. Chew gently to release the flavor. Clear your palate between bites with the toast and iced vodka or dry champagne. After savoring the caviar’s pristine flavors, you can experiment with accompaniments like crème fraiche, onions, and blinis.

Health Benefits of Eating Russian Caviar

While most diners focus on its delicious taste, Russian caviar also provides excellent nutrition. The Chinese reportedly called it “black gold” for health. Just one ounce (28 grams) offers:

  • High-quality protein: 17 grams 
  • Healthy omega-3 fats: 4 grams
  • Vitamins A, E, B6, B12 
  • Minerals like iron, magnesium, selenium

The omega-3s promote heart health by lowering inflammation and triglycerides. Caviar’s protein and micronutrients nourish bones, muscles, blood, and brain function. The combination of protein, healthy fats, and nutrition makes caviar a well-rounded superfood.

Why is Russian Caviar So Expensive?

Several factors make Russian caviar so extravagantly priced compared to common fish eggs:

  • Rarity – Sturgeons reproduce slowly. Beluga sturgeons don’t mature until age 15 and may live over 100 years. Stocks are limited.
  • Difficult extraction and processing – Significant hand labor and delicacy is required to extract and process the fragile eggs. 
  • Controlled supply – Strict fishing quotas and limited aquaculture output keep caviar scarce.
  • Prestige item – Caviar is synonymous with luxury, served for special occasions, not everyday dining. The prestige enables high pricing.
  • Perishability – Fresh caviar has a shelf life of just two to four weeks, increasing handling costs.
  • Inelastic demand – As an ultra-luxury product, caviar demand stays relatively unaffected by higher prices.

No other caviar compares to Russian Osetra or beluga. Only Caspian Sea sturgeon deliver that sublime balance of flavor, texture, and coveted scarcity that makes Russian caviar a coveted delicacy.

Where to Buy Authentic Russian Caviar?

Finding trustworthy sources is key when purchasing this luxury product. Beware cheap imitations. The website of the U.S. Caviar Association provides a list of reputable American companies importing authentic Russian caviar. 

Reliable purveyors include Tsar Nicoulai Caviar, Petrossian Paris, Calvisius Caviar, and Caviar Russe. They sell online and through luxury retailers like Bloomingdale’s and Neiman Marcus. Expect to pay premium prices for beluga exceeding $500 for 30 grams. Osetra ranges from $50 to $150 for 30 grams

Buying smaller tins allows tasting different caviar types without massive expenditure. Seek expert guidance to select the finest caviar for your budget and palate.

Importing Russian caviar into the United States requires proper documentation under CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species) regulations. Beluga caviar in particular requires import permits due to the wild beluga sturgeon’s endangered conservation status.

Legal Caspian Sea caviar should have a CITES tag on the tin with a registration code. Reputable suppliers will handle CITES permitting so the purchaser receives properly documented beluga or other caviar imports. 

Beware cheap, undocumented caviar, which is often counterfeit. Supporting legitimate caviar importers also encourages sustainability by incentivizing strong fishery management programs in Russia.

How to Store and Preserve Russian Caviar?

Like most seafood, Russian caviar is highly perishable – its shelf life lasts just 1-4 weeks refrigerated. Store caviar tins upside down in the coldest part of the refrigerator at 28-32°F to extend freshness. 

Once opened, press plastic wrap directly on the caviar’s surface to prevent oxidation and refrigerate. For longer storage, freeze extra caviar in a dated airtight container for 1-2 months.

Avoid introducing contaminants and handle caviar gently. Use non-metallic utensils like mother-of-pearl spoons. Never reuse dishes or utensils that previously heldnon-caviar foods. With proper handling, you can continue enjoying those glossy black pearls for their brief brilliant lives.


From Russian tsars to Soviet-era pub fare, caviar remains inextricably tied to Russian cuisine and culture. No gourmand’s indulgence surpasses the luxurious taste of pristine Russian sturgeon caviar. Thanks to aquaculture, this prestigious delicacy can now be ethically savored once again. While the extravagant prices limit caviar to special occasions, its rich history continues to intrigue caviar devotees worldwide. From the refineries of imperial Russia to today’s sustainable fisheries, Russian caviar evokes a distinctive epicurean heritage.